Tag Archives: Lexington Urology

What Men Need to Know About Prostate Cancer

by Terence Chapman, MD, Director of Urologic Oncology, Lexington Medical Center
Urologist, Lexington Urology

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. While it is a diagnosis that men dread receiving, the survival rate for men with prostate cancer has increased over the years thanks to better screening and treatment options. While 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, only around 1 in 33 die of the disease.

Risk Factors
There are multiple risk factors for prostate cancer; some are genetic, but some can be reduced by diet and lifestyle choices.

Age – While 1 in 6 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, the risk of getting prostate cancer increases as men age.

Ethnicity – African-American men have a higher incidence of the disease, and they are more likely to get it at an earlier age, have more aggressive cancers and a higher risk of death than other men.

Dr. Terence Chapman

Family History – Men who have an immediate family member (father, brother) diagnosed with prostate cancer are more likely to develop the disease.

Smoking – There is evidence that prostate cancer risk may be double for heavy smokers. Smoking is also linked to a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer.

Diet/Lifestyle – The risk may be higher if you eat more calories, animal fats, refined sugar and not enough fruits and vegetables. Lack of exercise is also linked to poor outcomes.

Obesity – Being obese increases the risk of dying from prostate cancer. A man can decrease risk by maintaining a healthy weight

Screening
It is recommended for all men to have a baseline PSA at age 40 which can help determine future relative risk and to individualize screening frequency based on a number of factors including their overall health, initial PSA level, prostate size, race and family cancer history.

It’s also important to know that an elevated PSA doesn’t always indicate cancer. Many men may have slightly elevated PSA levels because of other causes

After age 70, the value of PSA screening likely declines, depending on a man’s overall health.

Diagnosis
If there is a significantly high or increased PSA level or a significant change in prostate size, a prostate biopsy may be indicated. Through biopsy and additional testing, the physician diagnose prostate cancer and more accurately determine the severity (grade and stage) of the cancer.

Treatment
Though there are multiple treatment options, many cancers will not require treatment. In fact, more men than ever are eligible for initial surveillance. Faster growing tumors that are potentially life-threatening are more likely to require treatment.

Patients and physicians collaborate to determine the right course of treatment, depending on the tumor’s grade and stage, age and overall health of the patient as well as the patient’s willingness to accept potential side effects of treatment.

Treatment choices for prostate cancer include:
*Surveillance, including active surveillance and watchful waiting to monitor the tumor’s growth

*Localized therapies, including surgery, radiation therapy, cryotherapy and focal therapy

*Systemic therapies, including hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy

*At Lexington Medical Center Cancer Center, an affiliate of Duke Health, we follow the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for treating prostate cancer. Our multi-disciplinary team of surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, nurse navigators and social workers meets bi-weekly to collaborate and determine the best course of treatment for each patient diagnosed with prostate cancer. We also participate in clinical trials to offer new treatment options to our patients.

Ask the Clinician: Common Urology Problems in Women

David H. Lamb, MD, FACS, is a urologist at Lexington Urology, a Lexington Medical Center physician practice that provides comprehensive urologic care and advanced treatment for urologic conditions.

Q: What are the most common problems you see in female patients?
A: I see two urologic problems on a daily basis. The first is recurrent urinary tract infections. They occur when bacteria is not cleared from the bladder regularly. Any activity with the potential to introduce bacteria into the bladder is a risk factor, including sex. Treatments include antibiotics or preventative therapy. UTIs that recur often may require low-dose nightly or post-intercourse antibiotics if they infections are associated with sex. And, cranberry juice can decrease adherence of bacteria inside the bladder.

Dr. David Lamb

The second problem is overactive bladder, which is an urgent and frequent need to urinate and frequent urination. I think of it as the bladder in control of the person instead of the person in control of the bladder. It can be debilitating, but it’s treatable. Urologists look for infections, introduce behavioral and physical therapy to improve bladder control, use bladder relaxation medicine and even a Botox® injection to decrease unwanted muscle activity.

We have effective strategies to treat these problems, and there is no need to suffer in silence.

Understanding Kidney Stones

Passing a kidney stone is often called one of the most painful things a person can experience.

Sometimes, people say it’s even more painful than childbirth.

Kidney stones are small pebbles of salt and minerals in the urine.

They can be the result of a chronic medical condition, or of what you eat and drink.

In this WLTX interview, Dr. David Lamb of Lexington Urology explains what kidney stones are, where they come from and some things you can do to prevent them.

They often cause:
~Severe pain in the back, belly or groin
~Frequent or painful urination
~Blood in the urine
~Nausea and vomiting

Urologists can treat them in a variety of ways. One is high-energy shock wave therapy that can break the stone into little pieces, allowing them to move through the urinary tract more easily.

Sometimes, eating a lot of animal protein, sodium, chocolate or dark green vegetables can boost the risk for kidney stones. Other risk factors include drinking certain sweetened beverages, putting on weight and taking certain medications.

To reduce your risk, drink a lot of water. Hydration is key for prevention.